Fair, fragile skin and population exposed to the sun seem to be more prone to hyperpigmentation and dark spots. Skin complexion can be uneven.
The sun and ageing are the main causes of pigmentation marks such as "solar lentigo" and "senile lentigo".
Hormonal changes caused by pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives can also lead to hyperpigmentation (chloasma).
Phototoxic substances (exposure to the sun, certain plant species, fragrances and medicines) can cause brown spots to appear further to a photosensitisation reaction.
Furthermore, damaged or scarred skin (after-effects of burns, sunburns, healing of inflammatory lesions and particularly acne lesions) develops pigmentation marks more easily.
Pigmentation is the result of a complex 4-stage process:
1. Ultraviolet rays and "biological mediators" (substances found in the skin's cells) stimulate the pigmentation process and therefore the melanin-producing function of cells called "melanocytes".
2. Melanin is produced by melanocytes.
3. The melanin produced is distributed through the two layers of the epidermis.
4. It then migrates to the skin's surface through the ongoing renewal of the skin cells.
Tips and recommendations
- Protect your skin from the sun by limiting exposure and using sun protection at all time.
- Use adapted skincare products.
- Visit a dermatologist.